Wenn es im Netzwerk knirscht, versuchen Admins den Fehler in Analyse-Tools wie Wireshark anhand von Paketmitschnitten einzukreisen. Jedoch hat der Herr viel mehr Netzwerkprotokolle gegeben, als sich ein Admin-Hirn in allen Details merken kann. Eine Referenzdatei, die zahlreiche korrekte Protokollabläufe enthält, gibt Orientierung.
Continue reading Netzwerkprotokolle: Nachschlagewerk für Wireshark →
I am using the DNS Proxy on a Palo Alto Networks firewall for some user subnets. Besides the default/primary DNS server, it can be configured with proxy rules (also called conditional forwarding) which I am using for reverse DNS lookups, i.e., PTR records, that are answered by a BIND DNS server. While it is easy and well-known to configure the legacy IP (IPv4) reverse records, the IPv6 ones are slightly more difficult. Fortunately, there are some good tools on the Internet to help reversing IPv6 addresses.
Continue reading Palo Alto DNS Proxy Rule for Reverse DNS →
The Palo Alto firewall has a feature called DNS Proxy. Normally it is used for data plane interfaces so that clients can use the interfaces of the Palo for its recursive DNS server. Furthermore, this DNS Proxy Object can be used for the DNS services of the management plane, specified under Device -> Setup -> Services. However, there was a bug in PAN-OS that did not process the proxy rules and static entries when a DNS proxy object was used in the management plane. This bug was fixed in PAN-OS 6.0.0. I tested it in my lab with PAN-OS 6.1.0 running. Here are the successful results.
Continue reading Palo Alto: DNS Proxy for Management Services →
I am currently in touch with a few HTTP proxy installations. As every time when troubleshooting network issues, I am looking at Wireshark on the network and trying to understand the different packets.
Here is a short overview of the differences between HTTP requests that are sent directly to the destination and HTTP requests that are sent via a proxy. Wireshark screenshots and a downloadable pcap round things up.
Continue reading At a Glance: HTTP Proxy Packets vs. Normal HTTP Packets →
Short memo: This is the FTP proxy authentication format of “Check Point” for the FileZilla FTP Client. I needed it for my Cisco WSA (Web Security Appliance) laboratory in the case of an enabled proxy authentication.
Continue reading FTP Proxy Authentication Format “Check Point” →